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Assessment Phase


Soil is the upper surficial layer of earth in which plants grow, consisting of organic matter, clay, and disintegrated rock particles that can be impacted by contamination.

1,4 Dioxane (14DX-1)
Section 3 (Fate and Transport)
Describes 1,4-dioxane fate and transport in soil and investigative strategies for characterization.

1,4 Dioxane (14DX-1)
Table 3-2
Considerations for evaluating media potentially impacted by 1,4-dioxane.

Accelerated Site Characterization (ASCT-1)
Section 3: Describes the applicability and use of direct sensing for soil characterization.
Section 4: Describes borehole geophysics and its applicability for site characterization.
Section 5: Describes surface geophysical tools and their use to evaluate subsurface conditions.

Geospatial Analysis for Optimization (GRO-1)
Case Studies: Lead contamination in Soil
Case study of removal of lead contamination from soil of a former industrial property.

Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM-1)
Section 2 (Nature of Soil Sampling), pages 10-37
Describes use of incremental sampling in soil sampling.

Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM-2)
Section 2 (Nature of Soil Sampling)
A broad overview of soil sampling.

Integrated DNAPL Site Characterization (ISC-1)
Table D-4: Comparison of solid media sampling methods.
Table D-8: Comparison of chemical screening tools, including ones that can be used for soil analysis.
Section E.5.1: A short description of soil gas chemistry and their use in DNAPL CSMs.
Appendix I: Reference table of representative natural fraction of organic carbon values for soils, sediments, and rocks.

Integrated DNAPL Site Strategy (IDSS-1)
Section 2.2: Outlines the transport of DNAPL through soil.
Section 4.4.1: Treatment of DNAPL in unsaturated zone soils.
Section 4.1.3: Describes use of chemical and biological remediation technologies for DNAPL in soil and other media.

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS-1)
Figure 5-1: Fate and transport processes for PFAS, including through soil.
Section 5.3.1: Describes diffusion of PFAS in and out of lower permeability materials.
Section 5.3.3: Describes leaching of PFAS from soil into groundwater.
Section 6.2: Media-specific occurrence of PFAS in soil and sediment.

Fact sheet: Site Characterization and Media-Specific Occurrence, page 4
Discusses occurrence of PFAS contamination in soil.