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Assessment Phase

Surface Water

Surface water is a body of water above ground that can include streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, reservoirs, creeks, and oceans that can be impacted by contamination. 

1,4 Dioxane (14DX-1)
Section 1 (History of Use) – 1.4.2 Surface Water
Surface water contamination from 1,4-dioxane primarily originates from diverse industrial and municipal sources, including industrial and sanitary waste treatment discharges, surface runoff from impacted sites, and groundwater discharge to surface water.

1,4 Dioxane (14DX-1)
Section 3 (Fate and Transport) – 3.1.5 Groundwater-to-Surface Water Discharge and Table 3-2
Describes how the interaction between groundwater and surface water can lead to cross-media transfer of contaminants and may accelerate overall transport rates. 

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS-1)
Section 3.4;
Figure 5-1;
Section 5.3.3;
Section 6.4;
Section 16

Remediation Management of Complex Sites (RMCS-1)
Section (Site Challenges)
Describes the complex interactions between groundwater and surface water and how these interactions can be influenced by climate, topography, geology, and human activity such as groundwater withdrawal or flood control measures.